In BiblioTECH, Palfrey discusses the role libraries can play in the twenty-first century, where many of us in the first world carry smartphones and are using Siri and Alexa to find information. From the title, I thought that the book would be an argument for why libraries are better than search engines, why librarians are the navigation and retrieval experts in a world overwhelmed with information, and why we should support libraries and librarians. Those points are briefly mentioned throughout the book as assumptions, but his ideas are intended for an audience of library managers and librarians rather than the general public. Palfrey’s book is written as a wake-up call to librarians that the world is going to move on without them unless they evolve and create new kinds of libraries to serve modern users.
Denning (2015) concludes that “there is a need to rethink what services are possible with the new technology, as well as what is no longer needed.” Palfrey and Denning are talking about the Library 2.0 model (Casey & Savastinuk, 2007), which “seeks to improve services to current library users while also reaching out to potential library users” (p. 5). While Denning (2015) and Casey and Savastinuk (2007) redirect the library’s focus to the users, Palfrey turns his attention to the specific institutional challenges libraries face.
Palfrey writes that “the classic public library is long overdue for an update” (p. 3) and that people now have more choices in the information economy to choose from, and the library needs to adapt to stay relevant. The author discusses the challenges libraries face as we transition from an analog world to a digital one. He proposes ten steps to a path forward for libraries and librarians (pp. 226-229):
- Recast libraries as platforms
- Libraries must network with other institutions
- Libraries must align with their community’s values
- Libraries must account for physical spaces (the “third space”) and analog formats
- Libraries should only do what needs to be done and create services based on public interest
- Librarians should seek common ground with authors, agents, editors, and publishers
- Some library spaces should function like labs and encourage co-production and innovation
- Librarians should adopt “hacker culture” to create a shared, open digital infrastructure
- Preservation needs to be more collaborative
- We need to pay for libraries to transition to this digital future
His last step seems to be the only one really directed to the general public. He argues that libraries need serious investment from the government and donations from philanthropists like those of the early twentieth century to help libraries carry out these steps.
A former Harvard Law Library director, Palfrey brings his experience managing the largest academic law library to his discussion of the issues of digitization and access, copyright laws, and privacy. He explores the advantages and challenges to digitization of materials and how copyright laws and privacy are impacted by moving to an electronic library. He discusses at length the differences between book lending and ebook lending and how those differences affect the library’s ability to provide access to users (see this WSJ article for more about the battle between publishers and libraries).
Besides increasing access to information by digitizing what we already have and addressing the ebook problems, Palfrey doesn’t have much to contribute to how libraries can become more participatory and hyperlinked. He mentions labs and collaboration, but not how those innovations and actions can affect current library users and bring in new ones. He stops short of talking about other ways libraries can help users, outside of book lending and digitization; there is no mention of other services that can bring users in and keep current users, as discussed in the Hyperlinked Library model.
Palfrey believes that we are in a transition from an analog world to a digital world, and that libraries will need to straddle these worlds for a little longer but the digital future is coming, and libraries need to be prepared for it. If they aren’t, then the private sector will lead the way in providing information services and libraries will be left behind. He argues that “libraries can offer important alternatives to the services provided by the corporate sector, which will always have incentives to offer biased, limited, and costly access to knowledge” (p. 128). He stresses that libraries need to embrace the changes coming instead of living in the past. As Buckland (1992) states, “Library services have two bases: the role of library service is to facilitate access to documents; and the mission of a library is to support the mission of the institution or the interests of the population served” (“Foundations of Library Service”). Palfrey echoes this statement and emphasizes the need for digitization, and outlines how library services can move from the analog to the electronic library that Buckland proposed.
Buckland, M. (1992). Redesigning library services: A manifesto. Chicago, IL: American Library Association
Casey, M.E., & Savastinuk, L.C. (2007). Library 2.0: A guide to participatory library service. Medford, New Jersey: Information Today.
Denning, S. (2015, April 28). Do we need libraries? Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2015/04/28/do-we-need-libraries/
Palfrey, J. (2015). Bibliotech: Why libraries matter more than ever in the age of Google. New York, NY: Basic Books