Palaces for the People (Even When the Palace is Not Open to the People)

Photo: screenshot from

Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life paints libraries—public libraries specifically—as the great equalizer, the space that will catch humanity in its downfall and lift communities back up. I do not disagree, but I do not fully agree. As we have seen in the last seven months since physical library spaces closed all over the country due to COVID-19 (and many remain so), libraries are losing funding, jobs are being cut, and they are fighting to keep themselves relevant as essential “third places.” Library workers have continued to adapt to changing needs and circumstances, but there are remaining unmet needs deeply embedded in the structure of some communities that cannot be fixed with a library service or program.

“The accessible physical space of the library is not the only factor that makes it work well as social infrastructure. The institution’s extensive programming, organized by a professional staff that upholds a principled commitment to openness and inclusivity, fosters social cohesion among clients who might otherwise keep to themselves.”

(Klinenberg, 2018, p. 36)

Klinenberg focuses on the social impact of libraries early on in the book and then transitions to highlight various types of infrastructure, commenting on their influence on the communities in which they reside. In the chapter about college campuses, the juxtaposition of Ivy League schools and the surrounding area is described as isolating and exclusive. The architecture of the campuses physically keep outsiders out and insiders in, not allowing for social intersections. The example of the Silicon Valley technical hub is similar—the private tech campuses offer their employees access to green spaces, restaurants, athletic facilities, childcare, as well as other various spaces to expand their social network. But these amenities are off-limits to neighboring residents, visitors, and sometimes low-level temps and contractors. While the campuses bring boundless opportunity for social interaction for those who have access, they close themselves off to the neighbors that exist directly outside their walls. Libraries act in opposing fashion. Their buildings and services are influenced by community input and conversations; there are no requirements for entry (although there are still barriers to access). Libraries blur lines of social class and allow for natural interaction among diverse groups, explored in Klinenberg’s example of the Wii bowling tournament at the New Lots branch library.

Queens Library response to Hurricane Sandy. Photo from
the Urban Libraries Council.

Libraries do not only provide a space for people to gather—they provide a space for people to access support and assistance. In the wake of Hurricane Sandy in 2012, a New York City branch library that had escaped major damage began offering basic necessities to neighbors whose homes had been damaged by as much as 16 feet of water. They initially provided the basics (food, water, power) and within a couple of days started helping fulfill larger needs (connecting people to the Red Cross, helping residents fill out online FEMA applications). In this instance—and many others—library staff helped satisfy the communities needs by connecting them to local resources. 

Reflecting on the assistance provided by library workers after Hurricane Sandy reminded me of the early shutdown days in March 2020. The three-branch system I work at closed our doors to the public, but maintained a small staff of people answering phones each weekday. I was given the opportunity to work what we called “The COVID Hotline” without any previous reference experience. I am grateful we were there, although not in person, to provide resources and support to the members of the community. Speaking with people on the phone connected our staff to the community and vice versa. In times of fear and uncertainty, the library remains a familiar space that can provide a necessary sense of comfort.

As demonstrated, physical spaces are not the only pathway to social connectedness. Klinenberg mentions danah boyd’s book, It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens, which I read last year for INFO 200. Much of the anecdotal information boyd (2014) provides focuses on parents’ strict restrictions on their teens—how much time they are allowed to spend outside of home, where they can go, and what they can do. Instead of fighting with their parents for more time spent socializing outside—at the mall, park, or other public space—teens turn to their smartphones and computers, connecting to each other via social networking sites like Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and Twitter. Even though many prefer in person interaction, these modes of connectivity afford teens with limited physical mobility the advantage of staying present with each other through the online world. Libraries have the potential to act as a champion for teens as a “third place,” offering up a physical space with no expectations to provide anything in return. They also have the ability to offer up virtual space by providing free Internet access, virtual programming, and access to online databases/resources. 

The Hyperlinked Library

Klinenberg’s positive affirmations and rosy stories of libraries as gathering spaces, bringing diverse groups together for Wii bowling or story time give me hope—but these events are not always realistic possibilities. We know libraries provide a physical space for people to gather, explore their interests, work, play, experience community. They also provide digital access that allows for further exploration, connection and information seeking. Where do we go from here? In my neighborhood, we are currently looking at communities with large numbers of job loss, business closures, health concerns, people transitioning to online learning and working from home. How can the library’s social infrastructure help support these community needs? I do not have all of the answers. And I do not know what libraries are going to look like in the next couple months (or years). Uncertainty still hangs in the air, but I’m choosing to cling to the hopefulness I feel when I hear: “The library is everywhere—not just a building or virtual space” (Stephens, 2020).

Virtual connectedness. Illustration by Briana Gagnier.

boyd, d. (2014). It’s complicated: The social lives of networked teens. Yale University Press.
Klinenberg, E. (2018). Palaces for the people: How social infrastructure can help fight inequality, polarization, and the decline of civic life. Crown Publishing Group.
Leferink, S. (January 24, 2018). To keep people happy… keep some books. OCLC.
Stephens, M. (2020). The hyperlinked library model [Lecture]. Retrieved from
Stephens, M. (2016). The Heart of Librarianship: Attentive, positive, and purposeful change [eBook edition]. ALA Editions.

  1. Like you, Molly, I find hope in Michael Stephens’s depiction of libraries as being more than a building or virtual space. Getting the public to perceive libraries that way is the real hurdle, though, if libraries are to remain relevant. I agree with you that libraries are an important “third place” for teens, and I especially like that you point out that this physical space if offered “with no expectations to provide anything in return.” Teens juggle enough expectations from family, school, and the wider society, and libraries can and should be a judgement-free safe haven. That can still happen in virtual spaces, but I worry about the current lack of social infrastructure while libraries and so many other places are still unavailable. Thanks for your thoughtful post.

    1. @kayzdaze2020 Enticing people to join virtual spaces has been tough. I’m not in a position where I create/host programs, but I know the teen library has had little engagement with recent virtual programs. I think teens are tired from Zoom school and connecting with their peers on facetime–it’s a lot of screen time.

  2. Hi Molly –
    I really loved this post. The libraries that embrace teens I think provide a positive and safe space for them to explore and play. I know at the main library on base we have a large teen group that hangs out at the library a lot. I think parents like it because they know their teens are safe and in place they are less likely to get into trouble. We rarely have issues with the teens and they have done some really creative things at the library. They also have taken to designing and developing their programs that we just help execute and supervise. My favorite program they did was a life size game of clue using the whole library.
    Thanks for the post.

    1. Hi @jennietoblergaston! Thanks for taking a look at the post and commenting. Life sized Clue!! That sounds amazing. I know our former teen librarian did a murder mystery in the library with teens and I think it was planned and hosted by the TAB. Teens helping plan their own programming is so important because then we know they already have buy-in and their peers are more likely to get involved.

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