December 9, 2019 § Leave a Comment
As I close this semester, I am relieved to be able to breathe again. For the past several years, I have been all about libraries and my family. When I am not working, studying, or thinking about libraries, I am helping my children grow. So after a life changing event and a crazy semester of constant catch up, I am happy that I was able to finally watch Professor Steven’s lecture on Reflective Practice and read Gill’s Corkindale’s article The Importance of Kindness at Work. The thoughts in both lecture and article were the words I needed to hear. Balance and breathing are two important things to do before going back up on the horse and giving it your all.
So I will leave this final bog short and sweet, and I hope to see some of you next semester and congratulations to those who graduate this semester.
December 9, 2019 § 1 Comment
This semester was probably the hardest semester I’ve gone through due to unexpected hardships in my own life. With that being said, I feel like I took a lot of heart from this class. It’s really made me think of a library as this space that we can truly change people’s lives. Some of the articles and videos that I’ve encountered in this class have really touched me. With some innovation, knowledge, and grit, I think the library really can be that transformative space.
December 7, 2019 § 1 Comment
For this assignment, I wanted to focus on a participatory service. I really enjoy the concept of Makerspaces, though I have not had the opportunity to really interact with them because my local libraries do not have a defined space for them. I originally wanted to do a brief on 3D printing, but I felt that in order to do that I would need some knowledge on 3D printers and to be honest, as a patron, I personally do not have a driving need for that technology (not yet, at least). Instead, I wanted focus on another concept within the the maker space that is completely participatory: a sewing and mending lab. Though sewing is not a new technology, the concept of a sewing and mending lab is definitely a growing trend. As a patron with two kids who is tight on money and who is on the shorter side, I can definitely see that there is a need for a mending lab. My director’s brief is aimed at administrators at local libraries within Antelope Valley and my goal is to convince them that Makerspace and Mending are growing trends that need to be provided for the community.
December 2, 2019 § Leave a Comment
To coincide with the concept that learning is everywhere, I want to focus on the idea that stories are everywhere. In terms of infinite learning, we can gain much from other people’s stories and experiences. It’s how human beings relate and learn from one another. Telling our stories and listening to others leads human beings to have shared experiences and to collaborate. I would like to see the concept of shared personal stories in a library setting.
Currently, I have a niece who is thirteen years old and really into Wattpad, a website and app that allows people from all over the world to write and read user-submitted stories. She loves reading through this website and her enthusiasm for new content matches any person’s expectations of a newly released book. The sharing of experiences is that of a social media setting but the anonymity of writing stories and reading other people’s stories allows for creativity to flow, without fear of being judged.
My vision is to bring this type of storytelling to the library, maybe as bi-annual event or a constant service. It can be an online participatory service or an in person event where people submit their stories for a collection. Regardless of how it is delivered, two things shall remain: anonymity (if one chooses) and creativity. It is amazing what people can produce when they are free from criticism, hence why I want the freedom of anonymity. For the librarians, they would be merely facilitators and screen for anything that violates a policy or contradicts the mission statement.
Participatory and user generated content is becoming a norm in the online world and I feel libraries do not create enough physical or digital spaces where the people are in charge. This is an issue because this is what people want and need– they ability to control and create. If the library’s main brands is books, stories, and the fictional novel, then how come it has not exploited its own users’ abilities to create user-generated stories. Libraries are a perfect place to create an infinite learning experience through other people’s stories, it just needs to take the chance.
November 27, 2019 § Leave a Comment
In this post, I want to focus on community needs and what the library is doing to meet those needs. In my community, a huge need is to connect community resources to those who are homeless and poor. As a resident of L.A. county, I have often interacted with the those who are homeless. I have volunteered at soup kitchens and as a library employee, I have helped them many times. Because these populations visit the library everyday, I really think it is time that libraries need to embrace the social services aspect. Some do but a few are still resistant.
I find that there are some community members, government representatives, and yes, even library employees, that view the homeless and poor populations as an issue and an eye sore. This is problematic and detrimental to the community as a whole because it creates an “Us versus Them” mentality. The idea that certain populations ruin a community creates physical and social boundaries. Libraries can break down those boundaries
I have had the privilege of working in a city library and I currently live next to a county library. The overall mentality and approach between the two libraries and their interaction with those who were homeless, poor, and/or suffering from mental illness are very much different. In the city library, though these populations did indeed visit the library, there were some employees that were not compassionate and found them to be an issue. At the county library, programs are implemented that help connect underprivileged patrons to community resources. The library calls this program The Source. One can argue that maybe there is a bigger need at one library than the other, and though there may be some truth to that, I say that the overall mentality approach should not be any different.
A new model of the library is embracing social services. It’s not enough that we merely give information about social services but we physically connect patrons to social workers who will help them one on one. Ideally, this is meeting the patrons to where they are at and bringing the aide to them. This breaks down barriers and boundaries that are caused by lack of physical mobility. It’s what I see libraries becoming and what they should be doing.
On that note, I think libraries and librarians can take a proactive steps in changing certain mentalities towards our underprivileged patrons. On his video lecture, Michael Stephens brings up the concept of a community closet (n.d.). That is where staff and other community members donate things that other patrons may need. Inside the closet, maybe there will shampoo, soap, new toothbrushes, and other basic needs. This to me can be the first step in embracing the library as a social service and that it is more than just books. It is a place to tear down boundaries, even if that boundary is merely a lack of a toothbrush.
Stephens, M. (n.d.) New models . Retrieved from https://sjsu-ischool.hosted.panopto.com/Panopto/Pages/Viewer.aspx?id=d68f4501-b7e5-4a2e-b927-aad60122498e
November 17, 2019 § Leave a Comment
After reading and exploring the Model Programme for Public Libraries, I found myself thinking of the various libraries that I visit regularly and how they fit within the model. The truth: My local libraries don’t fir the model but they are slowly making progress by offering services and some spaces. However, some libraries near me, like Lancaster Library, still maintain heavy wooden furniture that is difficult to move and lacks comfortable, flexible spaces. The website for the Model Programme is managed by the Agency for Culture and Palaces in Denmark and the libraries that are featured display bright, flexible, and aesthetically pleasing community spaces. It is designed to invite people in the library and stay for a bit. With the intention of using the Model Programme, I want to transform the library space into a flexible community hub that inspires its visitors.
Goals/Objectives for Technology/Service
The Model Programme suggests that the library should follow the four space model. The four different spaces are as follows: the Inspiration space, the Learning space, the Meeting space, and the Performative space (Jochumsen, n.d.). Because in most cases, society has become a largely a postliterate society, which means that our libraries need to transform from just providing reading and study spaces. In order to be relevant and stay that way, the library needs to develops physical and virtual spaces that encourage its users to develop 21st century skills as well as soft skills, such as networking and interpersonal connections. The following list is what each of the spaces has to offer:
- The Inspiration Space: Meaning experiences involving literature, art, films, music, entertainment and games.
- The Learning Space: Formal and information learning, discovery and access to technology, and presentations.
- The Meeting Space: Participation, formal and informal work, and flexible spaces.
- The Performative Space: Specialized activity spaces, workshops and imagination stations.
The goal for the development, management, and utility of all four spaces is to offer the community a flexible community space that allows individual growth and interpersonal connections.
Action Brief Statement
For Library Administrators:
I plan to convince library administrators that by adopting and implementing the four-space model, they will offer their users a flexible community and activity space which will encourage more users and non-user to visit the library because it will show the community them that the library is much more than a collection books.
For library users:
I will convince library users that by creating a four-space model within their library, they will have a new community spaces which will encourage individual growth, interpersonal connections, and the pursuit of happiness, because their library has become much more than just a collection of books.
Evidence and Resource to support Technology or Service:
Model Programme for Public Libraries. https://modelprogrammer.slks.dk/en/
Jochumsen, H. (n.d.). The four-space model. Retrieved from https://modelprogrammer.slks.dk/en/challenges/zones-and-spaces/the-four-space-model-by-henrik-jochumsen/
Jochumsen, H. (2018). How to qualify the debate on the public library by the use of research-developed tools. Bibliothek Forschung und Praxis, 42(2), 344-350. Retrieved from http://libaccess.sjlibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lls&AN=130094552&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Laerkes, J. G. (2016, March 29). The four spaces of the public library [web log post]. Retrieved from https://blogs.ifla.org/public-libraries/2016/03/29/the-four-spaces-of-the-public-library/
Stevens, M. (2016). Dream. Explore. Experiment. Library Journal. Retrieved from https://www.libraryjournal.com/?detailStory=dream-explore-experiment-office-hours
Other sources of libraries that implement the model programme, thus the four space model:
Architizer. (2019). Bankstown Library and Knowledge Centre. Retrieved from https://architizer.com/projects/bankstown-library-and-knowledge-centre/
Birmingham City Council. (n.d.) About the Library of Birmingham. Retrieved from https://www.birmingham.gov.uk/info/50132/visiting_the_library_of_birmingham/1412/about_the_library_of_birmingham
Boekenberg spijkenisse. (n.d.). Home page. Retrieved from https://www.deboekenberg.nl/?lang=en
Dudley, D. (2019, November 1). How Helsinki built ‘book heaven’. Citylab. Retrieved from https://www.citylab.com/design/2019/11/finland-public-library-photos-helsinki-books-nordic-culture/601192/
Ingefjord, A. (2009). Garaget – All this and books too (G. Church, trans.) Scandinavian Library Quarterly, 42(1), Retrieved from http://slq.nu/index3fe9.html?article=sweden-garaget-all-this-and-books-too
Sandlian-Smith, P. (2016). The future of public libraries – anything is possible. Public Library Quarterly, 35(4), 311-317. Retrieved from http://libaccess.sjlibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lls&AN=120156404&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mission, Guidelines, and Policy related to Technology or Service
Administrators and key developers should create a mission statement that is the driving force of the implementation of the four space model. Because this model is more of a framework rather than a particular service, creating guidelines and a policy would not make sense and may in fact be counterproductive or not helpful. Stevens (2016) supports this concept of not confining to boundaries and believes that “arbitrary rules and procedures” make it more difficult If administrators keep to a certain mission and vision and get all the staff to also co difficult “for the community to use the building and its resources” (Stephens, 2016, para. 7). Less rules mean more freedom and access to our users. When the administration and staff is well trained and supports the mission, then the spaces itself will reflect that of the four space model.
Funding Consideration for this Technology or Service
Funding will depend on the individual library and the needs of the community. For Major overhauls of small, out of date libraries, they will need a lot of money and support. For bigger out-of-date libraries, buying furniture and redesigning the space to become more inviting and more flexible will be cheaper in comparison. In both cases, grants can be written and submitted to improve particular spaces, such as a better meeting space or designing a new inspiration space. In a county or city library, funds may be approved through a joint effort through its citizens and government, such as the case for Pam Sandlian Smith, when the citizens in Adams County in Colorado voted to increase funding for their libraries (TEDx Talks 2013). For the library who will work in the environment, staff will need to be trained and encouraged in the model programme, the four space model, and in understanding the mission of the library. There should not be an increase in staff time, just an adjustment to responsibilities and mind frame.
Actions Steps and Timeline?
The appropriate people who fund the library and its services need to approve of the new funding to revitalize and transform the library spaces. In this case, I will use Rosamond Public Library in Kern county, California, which has the space but not the funding. Rosamond Public Library already has meetings spaces, learning spaces, and inspiration spaces, whether that that is provided through programming or physical areas of the library but it is lacking in a performative space and a meeting space for children. I would propose to improve meeting spaces for the children section and create a permanent do-it-yourself workshop for their performative space. The expected timeline is as follows:
- Rosamond branch manager and Library Director team together to create a plan to be written for the board of Supervisors: 4 weeks to 8 weeks
- Approval through the board of Supervisors in Kern County: 6 to 8 weeks
- Staff meetings and emails to begin training on the new spaces and what it means to for the library: 4 to 8 weeks.
- Any cosmetic remodeling such as flooring and glass dividers: 2 weeks 4 weeks
- Purchasing the materials for the new spaces such as toys, materials, and tools for the new spaces: 1 to 2 weeks. (Purchase them while the remodel is happening)
- Purchase the new flexible furniture for the spaces: 1 to 2 weeks. (Purchase them while the remodel is happening)
- Open the new spaces as soon as the space are completed and safe to enter
- Evaluation is and should be ongoing.
Staffing Considerations for the technology or service:
I would highly recommend training staff on the new spaces and a chosen person to be responsible for implementing new workshops. This would be a part of programming and should not add to the responsibility of any permanent or part time staff if they already do programming. These spaces are meant to be flexible and offer informal experiences to our patrons, so they will be in charge of using the space as they see fit.
Promotion & Marketing for this Technology or Service:
Getting the community excited about certain spaces to the library would be a great way to increase public support. The library does this by acting transparent and let the community know what is being created and how it will improve the library and the community. This idea is reflected in Brian Kenney’s (2015) news article, in which he writes about how Seattle failed to rebrand the library through lack of transparency. Kenney (2015) states, “when patrons learn about a new library initiative, they’re not interested in how our work is changing, or how libraries are transforming. They are looking to see their needs, hopes, and dreams reflected back to them (Kenney, 2015, para. 8). We can do this through social media, local mass media, and signs within and outside the library. Other community spaces should also provide a space to promote the support of the development of new spaces within the library. This will generate excitement, whether it is a proposed makerspace, workshops, or work spaces.
Evaluation will be ongoing. Observation, number of attending participants, and on site evaluative surveys completed by patrons will be used for feedback. Expansion will be ongoing as long as the library and the staff see fit, so that the library develop within the framework and the library’s mission. Because the four space model in itself is flexible, it allows the library to develop and grow with new technologies and community needs. It further solidifies the idea that the library is no longer static but is a thriving community center.
Jochumsen, H. (n.d.). The four-space model. Retrieved from https://modelprogrammer.slks.dk/en/challenges/zones-and-spaces/the-four-space-model-by-henrik-jochumsen/
Kenney, B. (2015, November 13). Lessons from Seattle’s failed bid to rebrand its public library. Publishers Weekly. Retrieved from https://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/libraries/article/68666-brand-awareness-lessons-from-seattle-s-failed-bid-to-rebrand-its-public-library.html
Stevens, M. (2016, May 24). Dream. Explore. Experiment. Library Journal. Retrieved from https://www.libraryjournal.com/?detailStory=dream-explore-experiment-office-hours
TEDx Talks. (2013, December 16). What to expect from libraries in the 21st century: Pam Sandlian Smith at TEDxMileHigh [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fa6ERdxyYdo
November 5, 2019 § 1 Comment
As a former public library employee and a current library student, I have heard of the Dokk1 numerous times but have not really explored on what it is and how it provides services. In an article written by Morehart (2016), the Dokk1 library in Demark is described as the “living room of the city” and focuses on “providing space for performances, meetings, children activities, art installations, and general public gatherings” (Morehart, 2016, para. 4). It’s design is based on the Four Space Model which suggests an “inspiration space, learning space, meeting space, and performative space that overlap and intersect” (Stevens, 2016, para. 2). The Four Space Model can be found on the Model Programme for Public Libraries.
The Model Programme for Public Libraries is a program and website that provides insight and instruction on how to design the modern library and its programs. Its goal is to provide a flexible, public space that puts people’s needs and interest first. The website is organized and run by the The Agency for Culture and Palaces in Denmark and its goal is to open up the possibilities of what can be done in a public library (The Agency for Culture and Palaces, n.d.)
What I enjoy most about the Model Programme and its user-focused approach is the lack of policy and rules that the library implements. To allows the space to transform with its daily visitors throughout the day, the library staff did not want implement any arbitrary rules (Stevens, 2016). Throwing out rules and restrictions allows the users to connect to the available resources in a natural way that is useful for them. It’s an out-of-the-box way of thinking that reminds librarians that maybe we don’t know what’s best for the user. I think if we provide the appropriate spaces the modern day society, the users will decide on what that library can be for the community.
The Agency for Culture and Palaces. (n.d.). Model programme for public libraries. Retrieved from https://modelprogrammer.slks.dk/en/
Morehart, P. (2016, August 17). Moving beyond the “third place”. American Libraries. Retrieved from https://americanlibrariesmagazine.org/blogs/the-scoop/library-design-moving-beyond-third-place/
Stevens, M. (2016, May 24). Dream. Explore. Experiment. Library Journal. https://www.libraryjournal.com/?detailStory=dream-explore-experiment-office-hours
September 23, 2019 § 3 Comments
This week, I have really engaged with the idea of participatory environments and on some the unique ways in which librarians can create experiences that are truly user centered. One article that really spoke out to me was written Kathleen Constanza on the San Francisco library and their dedicated teen area The Mix. The area came into existence with the help of the Board of Advising Youth(BAY), a group of teens that helped design the space and advocate for its funding. It was specifically designed for the teens by the teens. Once can even say a user experience designed by the user. This to me is what libraries should really be moving towards.
As I continued reading through some of these inspiring readings, I really began to reflect on some of the participatory websites I enjoy. Two things that came into mind was Reddit and Goodreads. Both places allow me to “geek” out and participate in participatory environments, such as pop culture fan bases on Reddit or the Goodreads awards, which I look forward to every year. Then I thought about how I participate with the my neighborhood library. Eventually, I came to realize that there is only one time that I fully participate with my library and that is the Summer Reading Program(SRP). Now I have been on both sides of of SRP, both as a public library employee and user, and I fully enjoy both sides of it. I love the moments of chaos as the library goes all hands on deck for SRP but I am not here to talk about my time as an employee. I want to talk about being a patron. As an adult user during SRP, I enjoy signing up and writing reviews on the books that I read. I enjoy it so much that I do not miss to review my summer books and I read other people’s reviews to get ideas on some titles to add on my to-read list. Mind you, I do not often write reviews, even on Goodreads, so this for me is an event. This is the only participatory online activity I do with the the library. As an active library user, this makes me realize I want more from my library.
If I could create some participatory activities, I would include elements from the participatory environment that I already enjoy. For instance, why is it that we do not have comment capabilities on library websites? Why can’t we review books on the library website? Why can’t we create annual book awards for our library (this could be online or in person)? As a user, I feel like this would be exciting and different. Yes, the library websites provides an abundance of information pertaining to its events, its databases, and the collections, but it doesn’t really ask the user to interact with it. If libraries can make these tweaks to their online environments, maybe some of our users will stay awhile and enjoy the virtual side of the library.
September 16, 2019 § 4 Comments
For my context book assignment, I chose Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure can help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life, written by Eric Klinenberg. This book has been on my to-read list for almost a year and I have checked it out many times, but never had the chance to sit down and read it. When I saw that it was an option for this assignment, I immediately grabbed my copy that was hanging out on the shelf and read it to my heart’s content.
In his book, Klinenberg makes a statement that in order to combat inequality, crime, and disparity within neighborhoods, projects that support social infrastructure must take precedence. Social infrastructure are essentially the shared public spaces in cities and towns. These spaces can include libraries, schools, playgrounds, parks, athletic fields, swimming pools, sidewalks, courtyards, community gardens, green spaces, churches, civic associations, markets, cafes, diners, barbershops, and bookstores (Klinenberg, 2018, p. 16). Such places bring families outside of their home and out of isolation, and into the these shared public spaces. Because of the maintenance and ownership of such places, less crime can be attributed to the passive surveillance practiced by those who enjoy the space. We also tend to form stronger connections with others when we linger and share these common spaces. Stronger connections means stronger neighborhoods, even among some of the most polarized neighborhoods.
For neighborhoods that are suffering from crime, abandoned places, and a lack of food, Klinenberg offers evidence that creating shared public spaces within the neighborhood can help reduce crime and increase health. In Engelwood, an urban neighborhood of Chicago, there is an effort to turn abandoned, empty plots into shared community gardens. For a neighborhood that is considered a food desert – that is, a neighborhood with very little places to go for groceries – creating such places was a game changer. Not only does the community gardens provide fresh food, but they also provide a space to form social connections. These connections can obviously decrease time in isolation, which can be dangerous in a time of crisis. According to Klinenberg, “ a large body of scientific research now shows, social isolation and loneliness can be as dangerous as more publicized health hazards, including obesity and smoking” (Klinenberg, 2018, p. 23). In other words, social infrastructure helps people become and stay physically and mentally healthy.
For librarians, this means that we need to embrace our libraries as the third places they are. As we know, libraries are “among the most critical forms of social infrastructure” and “the most undervalued” (Klinenberg, 2018 p. 32). This means that we need to advocate and record evidence that our programs and spaces are being used by the neighborhood. We need to bring research and literature to the table to support our advocacy, and we need to become involved within our communities to create stronger support. We also need to give our users a chance to develop ownership, so that they may advocate for more funding for their libraries. In addition to support, we can also be part of other local programs that develop more of these shared spaces. We can be present in the community and get our hands dirty in creating these shares spaces. Being seen in the greater community and creating these spaces can help us form stronger connections to our users and other local organizations. All of this can help librarians bring more people, more organizations, and more funding to the library itself. We just need to remind people that we are the ultimate of shared, public, free spaces.
Klineneberg, E. (2018). Palaces for the people: How social infrastructure can help fight inequality, polarization, and the decline of civic life. New York, NY: Crown.
Goodreads. (n.d.). Palaces for the people: Cover. Retrieved from https://www.goodreads.com/book/photo/37707827-palaces-for-the-people
September 9, 2019 § 1 Comment
As I read more about the hyperlinked library model, I am amazed at how much heart is at the center of it. From what I have read and understood, the hyperlinked library model puts the user at the helm and the institution helps facilitate the user’s needs. This focus on the user is what makes the hyperlinked library so connected through human activity and emotion. It’s as if the libraries and the librarians are telling the users to “Follow your heart”.
So I was able to check out the e-book version of The Heart of Librarianship by Michael Stephens from the Los Angeles Public Library and one concept that stuck with me was that the hyperlinked librarian uses several methods to implement practice, one that includes “Playfully approaching opportunities to create learning experiences and engaging information-based services” (Stephens, 2016). Let’s focus on the word Play. As someone who was a preschool teacher, I have been arguing for the benefits of play for about a decade. In this class, I finally see it as a characteristic that librarians should have. To playfully approach new ideas, one needs to be curious, creative, and willing to take risks that fall outside of the box, sort of like a child whose only materials to play with are rocks, sticks, and dirt. Leave a four year old to play in the dirt and he will discover the anthill nearby. Next thing you know, he is making contraptions out of rocks and sticks near the anthill that is supposed to “help” the ants, whether that’s for extra exercise or new ways to get food (I really do speak from experience here!). To me, the Anthill represents the discovery of something new, whether that’s a technology, a user need, or another organization, and the Contraptions are the different methods on how to best connect the user and this new discovery. In other words, we need to approach emerging technologies like a curious, enthusiastic four year old.
Another concept that struck a chord with me was that libraries are infrastructure. Not too long ago I came across a podcast that was shared on social media. It was Episode 346 Palaces for the People, from the 99% Invisible Series, hosted by Roman Mars and produced by Emmett Fitzgerald. On this particular episode, our guest Eric Klinenberg talked about his book Palaces for the People, in which he explains the importance of social infrastructure. In a nutshell, shared spaces are what helps communities become and stay stronger. In a time of crisis, within these communities with strong infrastructure, community members reach out to each other, rather than stay in isolation. This week, I saw Eric Klinemberg’s name pop up again in the article Library as Infrastructure by Shannon Mattern(2014), where his findings support the argument that libraries should be considered valuable infrastructure within the community. Every time I read something of Klinenberg’s, I can’t help but agree on his findings on social infrastructure because I have experienced it in my own downtown, urban neighborhood. In this neighborhood, we have schools, churches, a library, a museum, and a park, all within a mile radius of each other. When a crisis did happen, my neighbors and I reached out to each other to make sure we were safe. I am not going to go into too much detail about what happened but you can read it here. Bottom line, I live in the apartment building that Angel Reynosa pointed at when he made up that story and my neighbors and I were traumatized throughout the entire experience. Reaching out and solidifying those connections helped the healing process because then we, the residents, didn’t feel alone. We were talking to each other, in our home and on the streets in neighborhood. The experience helped me make sense of the importance of social infrastructure.
Essentially, the hyperlinked library model is about people, and in order to connect with people we need the infrastructure to so. For us, the librarians, we need to get out of our comfort zone and meet the users on where they are, with the curiosity and imagination of a playful child. We need to spot trends and understand that our libraries can do so much more than just books. If we decide that they can, libraries can help people be better versions of themselves.
Fitzgerald, E. (Producer). (2019, March 19). Palaces for the people . Retrieved from https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/palaces-for-the-people/
Mattern, S. (2014, June). Library as infrastructure. Places Journal. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.22269/140609
Stephens, M. (2016). The Heart of librarianship: Attentive, positive, and purposeful chance. Chicago, IL: ALA Editions.